Research Paper On Pornography

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  • Child Prostitution And Pornography In Southeast Asia

    1,821 words

    Child pornography and prostitution are two of the most disturbing issues in the world today. Millions of children, in virtually every country in the world, become victims of sexual exploitation. Access to child pornography and prostitution in Southeast Asia has increased during the 1990 s due to the lack of government legislation and enforcement protecting children. Japan is the worlds global leader of child pornography on the Internet, whereas Thailand is famous for its sex tourism industry. Mo...
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  • Face To Face Send And Receive

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    Internet, its effects in our lives and the future of the Internet: The Internet is, quite literally, a network of networks. It is comprised of ten thousands of interconnected networks spanning the globe. The computers that form the Internet range from huge mainframes in research establishments to modest PCs in people's homes and offices. Despite the recent hype, the Internet is not a new phenomenon. Its roots lie in a collection of computers that were linked together in the 1970 s to form the US...
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  • Health Care Industry Years In Prison

    3,045 words

    ... ies and homes safe harbors from sexual pedophiles- people whose sexual fantasies focus on girls or boys- from around the world. In the past photographs of children being raped, sexually abused and exploited were sold at high prices through tight knit, difficult-to-access networks. Today, those illegal pictures are available for free online, at any hour of the day. Anyone with rudimentary computer skills and an interest in the material can obtain it. Computer networks can also allow pedophile...
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  • Internet Service Provider Child Pornography

    1,535 words

    I am Nancy Cohen, wife of Ivan Cohen, who was charged and convicted of possession and distribution of Child Pornography. Last week, Radio, TV and the newspapers stated the court of Appeal decision to uphold the conviction, but, to reduce the sentence from 14 months in jail, to 14 months of house arrest. After 4 years of silence, I, my husband and our children want our side of the story told. This wont change what has happened, but, as a family, we want the community to know the facts that were n...
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  • Eldest Son Child Pornography

    1,511 words

    ... court. The testing procedure is very intense, absolutely accurate and cannot be falsified. The tests included blood tests, written and computer based testing, as well as stimuli testing with probes attached to the phallus. The stimuli testing included both still image and video forms, in addition to audio stimuli testing and written materials. The result of these test concluded my husband was determined to be a normal male in every way. Again, these tests were on our own recourse, since we w...
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  • Child Pornography Internet Web

    370 words

    Child Pornography In my opinion, some of the best sources on the topic of child pornography that can be used for my paper would be the below Internet sites. End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes (ECPAT) - web This organizations website can contribute to my research because ECPAT explores good models for prevention work, and share those models and experiences. They also find and develop training modules to help caregivers to do their work better...
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  • Definition Child Pornography Child Pornography Countries

    406 words

    Child Pornography Modern time is considered to be a time of high moral value. But this statement sounds improbably taking into account the existence and distribution of child pornography. The problem has been regarded as international one. The global community has supported the decision of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child ("UNCRC") to take measures against child pornography. It should be said that the debates about the problem is rather controversial. First of all, there ...
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  • Child Pornography Sexual Exploitation

    2,249 words

    Child Pornography Abstract The article examines problem of child pornography that has become an issue of the day. The author gives definition of child pornography and explores the problem and application of the child pornography law by the courts in different countries. It also presents key findings and statistics from various national studies and researches conducted by Children UNO Fund UNISEF, the Computer Crime Research Center, Nielsen/Net ratings and others. The article dwells on several cr...
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  • Civil Liberties Union Quot Quot

    4,228 words

    As a professional Internet publisher and avid user of the Internet, I have become concerned with laws like the Communications Decency Act of 1996 (CDA) that censor free speech on the Internet. By approving the CDA, Congress has established a precedent which condones censorship regulations for the Internet similar to those that exist for traditional broadcast media. Treating the Internet like broadcast media is a grave mistake because the Internet is unlike any information medium that has been cr...
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  • Censorship Of The Internet Child Pornography

    2,014 words

    Censorship of the Internet The Internet s free speech rights are currently a hot topic in the news for a wide variety of reasons. People are abusing the Internet and putting things that have no business being on there, for example such things as child pornography, bestiality, and S &# 038; M photos and videos. Complete CD and software packages ranging from $ 60 -$ 1000 can be found for free on any random page if you look hard enough. Countless people have been harassed and stalked in a number of...
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  • Hate Literature Child Pornography

    1,631 words

    Did you know that 83. 5 % of the images available on the Internet were pornographic (Kershaw)? Did you know that pornography on the Internet is readily available to curious little children who happen to bump into them? Today, the Internet which has only become popular several years ago, is unequivocally one of the most revolutionary innovations in the computer world. The information superhighway has changed peoples lives dramatically and have created many new exciting opportunities as well as ma...
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  • Freedom Of Speech Child Pornography

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    Free Speech and Free Action Freedom of speech differs from freedom of action. But speech and action are so closely interwoven in human behavior that its not always immediately obvious which is which. Thus its not surprising that we often criminalize speech as well as, or even instead of, the action that it accompanies. This is a mistake. Consider, for example, the apocryphal snuff movie. (I say apocryphal because, in my years of anti-censorship activism, Ive encountered no credible evidence that...
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  • Health Care Industry Face To Face

    6,086 words

    Internet and it s future The Internet is, quite literally, a network of networks. It is comprised of ten thousands of interconnected networks spanning the globe. The computers that form the Internet range from huge mainframes in research establishments to modest PCs in people s homes and offices. Despite the recent hype, the Internet is not a new phenomenon. Its roots lie in a collection of computers that were linked together in the 1970 s to form the US Department of Defense s communications sy...
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  • Freedom Of Speech Material On The Internet

    419 words

    Child pornography, hackers reading how to hack into your web site or personal computer and children reading explicit details in the Starr Report; these are all examples of harmful information available on the Internet that should be regulated by the government. Government should regulate information on the Internet. Obscene and harmful material on the Internet, such as child pornography should be obliterated. Other questionable material, such as the Starr Report, should be published on the Inter...
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  • Health Care Industry Face To Face

    6,075 words

    The Internet: its effects and its future Essay written by Eva Kits Internet, its effects in our lives and the future of the Internet: The Internet is, quite literally, a network of networks. It is comprised of ten thousands of interconnected networks spanning the globe. The computers that form the Internet range from huge mainframes in research establishments to modest PCs in peoples homes and offices. Despite the recent hype, the Internet is not a new phenomenon. Its roots lie in a collection o...
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  • Internet Service Providers Pilot Study

    9,816 words

    The Internet has emerged as a dynamic new communications medium at an astounding pace in recent years. It enables the exchange of text, sound, video and images between millions of individuals from all around the world in a manner not possible via traditional media. But along with the growth of these services and the benefits they can provide for enhanced communication, entertainment and educational services, concerns have been raised around the world about the content of these services. The natu...
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  • Communications Decency Act Protect Their Children

    2,226 words

    Why should anyone be concerned about pornography on the Internet? After all, this is a free country and everyone should have access to anything they want, right? This position would be true if only adults used the Internet; it can not be true when children also use the Internet. Most people would agree that children should not have access to Internet sites that are considered pornographic. Does that mean that children should not be allowed Internet access or that the Internet should not have por...
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  • Child Pornography Electronic Communications

    1,390 words

    In On-Line Dangers On-line Dangers In this day and age of super high-speed networking and digital communications, just about anything on any subject can be found on the Internet. Some materials, such as online libraries are helpful, some, such as students personal homepages are fairly useless, and some sites, such as online medical references, can be lifesaving. All these sites have a right to be on the web. However, there are also sites that could be detrimental to people, such as pornography s...
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  • Sexual Behavior Child Pornography

    334 words

    Pornography Child Pornography Child Pornography Pornography is a serious issue that will never be ignored or dismissed. Focusing directly with child pornography. Pornography, viewed by an adult is a pill stimulating the mind, inducing sexual amusement and pleasure, but when a child views pornography, an affect of social behavior starts. This child not only represents him or herself in the world, but also represents the world? s youth altogether. Often pornography is the first exposure children h...
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  • Hard Core Pornography Age Of 21

    2,527 words

    Pornography &# 038; Ethics Pornography is a social problem and is a commodity brought into existence by certain characteristics of a highly developed civilization. The problem with pornography is that any form of censorship or suppression cannot solve it. These aggressive methods would merely aggravate the disease and create other deplorable consequences. Prevention is better than cure, and by diagnosing the psychological motives of those who consume pornography, we may be able to change the ins...
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Defined as material, such as writing or pictures, designed to arose sexual desire, pornography has been in existence for centuries and found popularity across every culture Ninety percent of pornography is directed at heterosexual males, with the audience being primarily white and middle class. There has long been a social stigma, or a non-pecuniary cost, associated with the use of sexually explicit materials (Kendall, 2006). However, social mores have loosened over time and the shame or stigma associated with viewing pornography has also decreased. Pornography is also a "hot button" issue for many feminists -some of whom feel that all pornographic material depicting women degrades and objectifies women. Other opponents of pornography base their views on religious or moral grounds, and see the consumption of pornographic material as a threat to the family and society. Social scientists continue to study the effects of long term exposure to pornography on intimate relationships, as well as the relationship between exposure to pornography and sexually deviant behavior.

Keywords Child Online Protection Act (COPA):; Child Exploitation Pornography; Erotica; Internet Pornography; Miller v. California; Non-pecuniary Costs; Peer to Peer Networks; Prurient; Sexual Violence; Sexually Explicit Materials; Social Mores

Overview

Defined as material, such as writing or pictures, designed to arose sexual desire, pornography has been in existence for centuries and found popularity across every culture (Hudson, 2008). Today, 90% of pornography is directed at heterosexual males, with the audience being primarily white and middle class (Hudson, 2006).

Opponents of pornography have long argued that pornography has a corrosive effect on individuals, families, and society. Social conservatives view it as capable of undermining monogamous marriages, leading unmarried men into sexual depravity, and corrupting young, impressionable women (Pollard, 1993). Accordingly, there has long been a social stigma, or a non-pecuniary cost, associated with the use of sexually explicit materials (Kendall, 2006). However, social mores have loosened over time and the shame or stigma associated with viewing pornography has also decreased. Historically, as the financial, or pecuniary, costs of accessing pornography have decreased, there have been repeated attempts to increase the non-pecuniary costs associated with pornography (Kendall, 2006). In other words, as sexually explicit materials have become cheaper and more widely available, social forces have shifted in an attempt to control consumption through non-pecuniary means.

The Rising Demand for Pornography

Pornographic materials have been in existence for as long as man created art out of stone and clay. The production and distribution of pornography adapts easily to new media whether they be pictures, print, photography, movies, or computer files. In the US pornographic images gained popularity with GIs during WWII. Twenty years after the war, Playboy magazine was first published, and, in a short time, saw its circulation skyrocket. In 1974 the more explicit Hustler entered publication and, like Playboy, was well received in the marketplace, showing just how much demand there was for pornography. After Sony introduced the VCR in 1975, pornography began to be sold in the form of x-rated videos tapes, which allowed viewers to watch pornographic movies in the privacy of their homes instead of at public movie houses. When it was created, the Internet and the first graphical browsers represented a "quantum leap in pornography distribution" (Kendall, 2006). It is difficult to ascertain what percentage of Internet sites contain sexually explicit or sexually oriented materials, but estimates are staggering. Some estimates put the growth of sexually oriented web sites at "hundreds" per week, but, with the global reach of pornography, such estimates may be low. Today, much of the pornography exchanged in digital formats is shared over peer to peer networks. These networks allow creators, distributors, and users to share content directly without having to post it on public sites.

Legislation

Some types of pornography are protected under the First Amendment. This protected content depicts adults, and, while adults are free to access it, minors' access may be restricted if the content is deemed "harmful to minors." In 1973 the US Supreme Court decision Miller v. California defined what types of sexually explicit materials are and are not excluded from protection under the First Amendment: obscenity and child pornography.

Miller v California defined basic guidelines for obscenity cases as the following:

• "Whether the average person, applying contemporary community standards, would find that the work, taken as a whole appeals to the prurient interest.

• "Whether the work depicts or describes, in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct specifically defined by the applicable state law.

• "Whether the work taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political or scientific value" (Hudson, 2008).

Child pornography was defined by the 1996 Child Pornography Prevention Act as "any visual depiction…[that] is, or appears to be, of a minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct" (Child Pornography Prevention Act, 1996, as quoted in Hudson, 2008, ¶ 20). When minors, including teens, are depicted in pornographic material they are considered "victims" of a crime, and anyone possessing or viewing such material is considered a criminal (Finkelhor, & Ormrod, 2004; Hudson, 2008).

Determining what constitutes pornography is both "controversial and confounding" (Hudson, 2008) and, even with the Supreme Court definition, remains the subject of much contentious debate. Pornography is also a "hot button" issue for many feminists -some of whom feel that all pornographic material depicting women degrades and objectifies women. Other opponents of pornography base their views on religious or moral grounds, and see the consumption of pornographic material as a threat to the traditional nuclear family. Social scientists continue to study the effects of long term exposure to pornography on intimate relationships, as well as the relationship between exposure to pornography and sexually deviant behavior.

Via the Internet, children and teens have unprecedented access to sexual explicit materials, and only recently have researchers begun to study what effects the accidental and purposeful viewing of pornography has on children and teens.

Applications

Pornography

A long standing question asked by social scientists concerns the relationship between sexually explicit materials and anti-social behavior (Kendall, 2006). Consider the following public perceptions about exposure to pornography from a survey.

• 49% believe pornography can cause men to rape

• 56% blame it for a breakdown in morals. (Hudson, 2006)

Many researchers have explored the relationship between exposure to pornography and sexually violent behavior. The following examples reveal that research on the question has been largely inconclusive.

In 1979 Neil Malamuth and his colleagues published a study titled Exposure to Pornography and Reactions to Rape, the purpose of which was to study the effects of exposure to sexual violence as presented in the mass media on men's and women's attitudes toward rape.

Malamuth's study cited research suggesting that sexually violent depictions can, among other things, perpetuate beliefs about female subservience, lead to assault, and encourage acts of hostility against women (Malamuth, Reisin & Spinner, 1979). However, Malamuth also cited other studies which concluded that there is no evidence that exposure to pornography causes any adverse effects, including aggression towards women. His 1979 study was meant to further understanding of just what effects depictions of sexual violence have on attitudes toward rape.

Malamuth and his colleagues collected a group of 80 male and female students and randomly exposed each of them to one of three different stimuli:

• violent sexually explicit images (Playboy magazine images with violent content)

• non-violent sexually explicit images (Playboy magazine images without violent content)

• neutral images (National Geographic magazine images, primarily landscapes).

After being exposed to the stimuli, all of the students viewed the same video of an interview with a rape victim and then completed a survey about the interview, asking them about their

• "Perceptions of the victim and assailant (e.g., intelligence, attractiveness)

• Perceptions of experience of victim (e.g., pain, trauma, etc.)

• Attitudes toward rape (e.g., responsibility, possible justification, punishment merited, sexual vs. violent motive).

• Subjects' beliefs about their own behavior in such situations (e.g., the possibility of engaging in sexual assault)" (Malamuth, Reisin & Spinner, 1979, p. 5).

Because the researchers were concerned that the experimental environment might skew their results, several weeks after the initial exposure Malamuth and his...

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